Vitalik Buterin’s Vision: Three Crucial Transitions for the Future of Ethereum

Future of Ethereum

Ethereum has consistently been at the forefront, pushing the boundaries of what’s possible with decentralized applications in the dynamic world of blockchain technology. However, as the platform matures and evolves, it faces a series of significant transitions that will shape its future. These transitions, while complex, are pivotal for Ethereum to continue its journey toward becoming a more scalable, secure, and privacy-preserving platform.

This blog delves into these three significant transitions – the Layer 2 Scaling Transition, the Wallet Security Transition, and the Privacy Transition. We will explore what each transition entails, why it’s essential, and the challenges and solutions associated with it. We will also discuss the role of the Ethereum Name Service (ENS) in managing these transitions and reflect on the future of Ethereum as it navigates these changes.

First Transition: The L2 Scaling 

The first transition is the shift to Layer 2 (L2) scaling solutions, specifically rollups. Rollups are an L2 solution that performs transaction execution off-chain and posts the results on the main Ethereum chain (Layer 1). This transition is crucial because, without it, transaction costs on Ethereum could become prohibitively high, especially during periods of high network congestion.

High transaction costs could deter mass-market products from using Ethereum, pushing them towards centralized solutions. Therefore, the L2 scaling transition is essential for maintaining Ethereum’s decentralization and accessibility.

Second Transition: The Wallet Security

The second transition involves moving from traditional wallets to smart contract wallets. Traditional wallets, also known as externally owned accounts (EOAs), are controlled by private keys. In contrast, smart contracts govern smart contract wallets, allowing for more complex functionality, such as recovery options if a private key is lost.

With this transition, users may feel comfortable storing their funds and non-financial assets on Ethereum, leading to a shift towards centralized exchanges. This transition is, therefore, crucial for enhancing the security and usability of Ethereum.

Third Transition: The Privacy

The third transition is about improving privacy on Ethereum. Currently, all transactions on Ethereum are public, meaning anyone can trace the transaction history of any Ethereum address. This lack of privacy could deter many users, leading them to opt for centralized solutions that offer some level of data privacy.

The privacy transition aims to ensure privacy-preserving funds transfers are available and all other developments (like social recovery, identity, and reputation) are privacy-preserving. This transition is, therefore, crucial for protecting user privacy on Ethereum.

Implications of the Transitions

These transitions will fundamentally reshape the relationship between users and addresses on Ethereum. In an L2 scaling world, users will exist on multiple L2s, meaning the days of a user having only one address will be gone. This will require users to manage multiple addresses across different L2s, adding complexity to the user experience.

Smart contract wallets add more complexity, making having the same address across L1 and L2s more accessible. This is because the address of a smart contract wallet is determined by the contract’s code and the address that deployed it, both of which can vary across different L2s.

Privacy requires each user to have even more addresses, potentially changing the types of addresses we’re dealing with. For example, if stealth address proposals become widely used, users might have one address per transaction. This could further complicate the user experience, as users would need to manage a large number of addresses.

Challenges and Solutions

These transitions pose significant challenges, particularly in terms of coordination and changes in how we interact with Ethereum. For instance, simple actions like paying someone require more information than just a 20-byte address. However, solutions are being proposed and implemented.

One such solution is the concept of “keystore contracts.” These smart contracts store all the information about a user and how to interact with them. By using keystore contracts, users can manage the complexity of multiple addresses per user.

Another solution is to rely more heavily on direct communication channels between the sender and the recipient. For example, the sender could send a claim link (either as a direct URL or a QR code) which the recipient could use to accept the payment however they wish.

The Role of ENS

The Ethereum Name Service (ENS) could play a significant role in managing these transitions. ENS on L2 is happening, with ERC-3668 and ENSIP-10 providing a way to verify ENS subdomains on any L2 automatically. This could make it easier for users to manage their addresses across different L2s.

However, this approach has its limitations. For instance, it ties too many things to your name, which could be a privacy concern. Additionally, it doesn’t allow for trustless counterfactual names, which can be created and used without being registered on-chain. This could limit the flexibility and privacy of ENS.

The Future of Ethereum

Despite the challenges, achieving scalability, wallet security, and privacy for regular users is crucial for Ethereum’s future. It’s not just about technical feasibility but actual accessibility for regular users. The Ethereum community must rise to meet this challenge, ensuring the platform remains decentralized and understandable to users.

As Ethereum undergoes these transitions, it’s important to remember that the goal is to improve the technology and make it more accessible and usable for everyone. This means developing new technologies, educating users about these changes, and providing them with the tools they need to navigate this new landscape.


In conclusion, Ethereum is undergoing three significant transitions that will fundamentally reshape its future. These transitions – the L2 scaling transition, the wallet security transition, and the privacy transition – are crucial for maintaining Ethereum’s decentralization, security, and privacy.

While these transitions pose significant challenges, solutions are being proposed and implemented. The Ethereum community is rising to meet these challenges, working towards a future where Ethereum is not only technically advanced but also accessible and usable for everyone.

As we look toward the future, it’s clear that Ethereum needs to stand up. It’s evolving and growing, pushing the boundaries of what’s possible in decentralized technology. And as it does so, it’s paving the way for a more open, global, and permissionless future.

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